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Last updated: September 13, 2009

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Hindi Dictionaries

Search for in La Trobe or Raidas/Ravidas Glossaries

Introduction

This Hindi dictionary contains 6615 Hindi words. There are about 2500 modern Standard Hindi words in it from the first, second, third and fourth semester Hindi language units I taught at La Trobe University from 1997 to 2008. I intend to replace these over the next year or so with the glossaries for the Hindi modules I am now teaching at NUS in Singapore.

In addition I have now added around 4000 medieval Hindi words from the songs of Raidas, also known as Ravidas, a medieval Indian poet saint, more details about which are given below. The entries on these words were originally part of my thesis, but were never published and I have decided to make them available here.You can now search by English or Hindi words, or type of word, or source or lesson number, and even by derivation.
Notes:
You need to have a unicode Hindi font installed on your computer to see the Hindi text.
Warning searching using no search term for all sources will cause a time out error.

Modern Hindi Glossary: Peter Friedlander

This glossary is of around 2500 words which might be suitable to be learned during first and second year Hindi. I am working on providing etymologies (derivations) for the words as these are often interesting in themselves, and a useful tool to help in learning vocabulary. These are modeled on the kind of format I used in my glossary for the vani of Raidas. I hope to update this glossary later in 2008 with the derivations.

There are basically three sources of Hindi words. There are words which are directly from Sanskrit which are called tatsama words, these are indicated as Skt in the glossary. Then there are words which are derived from the Sanskrit which are called tadbhava words. The way these are indicated is that their derivation is preceded by a number which refers to an entry in a dictionary by Ralph Turner which tried to trace all the words in Indo-Aryan languages derived from Sanskrit (CDIAL, see below). There are also loan words from non-Indian languages. The languages which the words are derived from include Arabic (Ar.), Persion (Pers.), English (Eng.) and Portuguese (Port.). There are also some Hindi words with no apparent origin, these are sometimes called 'deshi' or 'deshaj' ('country words'), but are here indicated as simply Hindi (H.). For further information on the formation of the vocabulary of Hindi the introduction to McGregor's dictionary constitutes probably the best available introduction to this topic.

In addition to the sources I used for the Raidas glossary (see below) I also used for this glossary the following dictionaries.

Bahri, H. (1997), Dictionary of Official Language (Hindi-English), Lokbharti Prakashan, Allahabad.
Chaturvedi, M. & Tiwari, B. (1996, third ed.), A Practical Hindi-English Dictionary, National Publishing House: Delhi.
McGregor, R. (2006, orig.ed. 1993), The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press: Delhi.

The numbers in the glossary refer to units corresponding to each semester of the first two years of study and then to the lesson in each volume. Note that in Hindi 4 the source articles are numbered, starting at 500, rather than being given in the form of lesson number.

Glossary of the vani of Raidas: Peter Friedlander

This glossary is of around 4000 words found in a critical edition of the vani of Raidas which is based upon twelve manuscript sources which date from AD 1582 to AD 1698. The manuscripts come from four traditions. First, a non-sectarian tradition represented by the Fatehpur MS of AD 1582. Second the Dadu Panthi tradition, represented by eight MSS of AD 1636 to AD 1698. Third, a Rajasthani Nath Siddha tradition represented by two MSS of AD 1660 and AD 1681, and fourth, the Panjabi tradition as represented by the Adi Granth of AD 1603-4. For more details see my published thesis below.

It was originally part of my 1991 PhD thesis, but was not included in the published version, see:
Callewaert, W. M & Friedlander, P., 1992, The Life and Works of Sant Raidas, Manohar: Delhi.

Table of abbreviations used in the glossaries

Languages
Ar. Arabic
Braj. Brajbhasha
Guj. Gujarati
H. Hindi
K. Kashmiri
M. Marathi
P. Panjabi
Pers. Persian
Pkt Prakrit
Skt Sanskrit
Tur. Turkish
Port. Portuguese
Eng. English

General
a. ablative
abs. absolutive
adj. adjective
adv. adverb
aux. auxiliary verb
caus. causative
cf. confer, compare
cj. conjunction
cntr. contraction
emph. emphatic
encl. enclitic
dim. diminutive
f. feminine
fut. future
ger. gerund
ind. indeclinable
intj. interjection
imp. imperative
la. locative absolute
neg. negative
nf. noun feminine
nm. noun masculine
num. number
m. masculine


onom. onomatopoeic
p. plural
pass. passive
pd. plural direct
pl. plural locative
po. plural oblique
poss. possibly
pp. past participle
ppn. postposition
pr. pronoun
pre. prefix
prepn. preposition
pres. present
prob. probably
ptc. participle
q.v. quod vide
s. singular
sd. singular direct
sl. singular locative
so. singular oblique
suf. suffix
v. vocative
va. verbal agent
vc. verb causative

Symbols
* hypothetical
< derived from
> has become
?? doubtful meaning or unknown etymology
F root
[ ] etymology
{ } approximate number of instances


Numerals
(in grammatical definitions)
1 first person
2 second person
3 third person

Numerals after words in the Rajasthani glossary refer to the pada and antara in which the word occurs in the Rajasthani sequence for the padas, and in the AG glossary to the occurrence of the word in the AG sequence.
Numerals prefixed by 'S' in the Rajasthani and AG glossaries refer to words from the sakhis in the vani.

Numerals in the etymologies refer to head words in CDIAL

Principal sources
Molesworth, J.T. 1857. A Marathi Dictionary. Bombay.
Monier Williams, M. 1899. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London.
Platts, J.T. 1884. A dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English. London.
Shackle, C. 1981. A Guru Nanak Glossary. London. [GNG]
Shyam Sundar Das. (ed) 1916-28. Hindi sabdasagar. Varanasi.
Turner, R.L. 1966, 1969, 1971, 1985. A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages. London. [CDIAL]

Note on the conversion process
These glossaries were originally part of my PhD thesis and were made during 1987-1991. They were created in Locoscript, a word processor on the Amstrad PCW running on the CPM operating system. They were later converted to the PC version of Locoscript.

This year (2007) I tried to open them but found that modern PCs cannot install Locoscript. However, I accessed an old PC running DOS and was able to export them from Locoscript to Wordperfect 5.1 format. This was then imported into Word for Windows.

In order to preserve the diacritic marks in the original I converted them into codes like _a for a etc. Then in Word I converted them back to diacritics.

The original work did not have Devanagari script in it. The column in which the words are in Devanagari was created by running the text through a macro I wrote to do a rough conversion of the transliteration into Devanagari. I then edited that to improve its accuracy.

It is inevitable that in this process some new errors may have been introduced into the data. My apologies for any errors, but I consider it is still more useful in this form than it is as a PhD thesis sitting in London University library.




Page maintained by: Peter Friedlander
Last Updated: 29 March 2009:
Glossary contents © Peter Friedlander 2007